Most notably mentioned in a recent episode of Stargate Universe (lol), the Shor-Traub algorithm is simply a more efficient method for evaluating a polynomial. According to encyclopeadia.com it is said to allow “computers to compute faster…” this is not actually correct, it does not make a computer compute ‘faster’ as this would suggest that improvements have been made on a hardware level, it’s simply a more efficient method of performing the same calculation.
The Shor-Traub algorithm along with that of a method devised by Sarah Flannery which she discusses in her book “In Code” is simply an efficient method that can be used to discover the prime numbers that make up the public/private key used in ‘secure’ computer communications and transactions called RSA encryption (Rivest, Shamir and Adleman).
Shor’s Algorithm on a quantum computer. Shor’s Algorithm is a method for finding the prime factors of numbers (which plays an intrinsic role in cryptography)